This book attempts to study causal relationships between several measures of financial sector growth and deepening and economic growth in the Indian context, using annual data from 1950-51 to 2008-09. The relationship between financial sector development and economic growth can be analyzed from three angles: financial deepening leading to economic growth, economic growth leading to financial deepening and a bi-directional relationship between the two. The book gives a detailed description of the data used in this study, book further describes the empirical methodology, the main tool of analysis are the method of Granger causality, Error correction Mechanism, Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Co-integration explained. The data used are annual data from Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy; Statistical Tables Relating To Banks in India, Banking Statistics, NSE News (Private Circulation), Fact Book of NSE, BSE annual reports, and Handbook of Statistics on The Indian Security Market by SEBI. All the variables were tested for unit roots using the Dickey-Fuller test (1979) which have been referred from the Enders (2003) to find out stationarity and study considers critical values at 5 per cent significance level. Unit root test is performed by using the R software and difference operators have been indicated with the numerical value. This study applied Granger causality test to verify causality between various variables of financial deepening and Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita Income as indicators of economic growth. It is shown that for a wide range of financial variables, financial deepening does indeed cause economic growth. However, the causality is not unidirectional; in a feedback relationship, economic growth too causes financial sector deepening. The study supports the claims of all three schools.