Water is the most essential commodity for human consumption and one of the most important renewable resources, which must be prevented from deterioration in quality and quantity both. With rapid growing population and improved living standards, the pressure on water resources is increasing. Exploitation of water from the resources for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes puts resources. Pollution of surface and subsurface water resources poses a serious threat to human health and environment. The surface water sources are largely influenced by anthropogenic activities. As most surface water sources are already polluted by rapid urbanization and industrialization, its adverse effects on shallow subsurface groundwater aquifers are a cause of concern as large population is depending on it. The chemical composition of groundwater is related to the soluble products of rock weathering and decomposition and changes with respect to time and space. Some elements are essential in trace amounts for human consumption while higher concentrations of the same can cause toxic effects. Water quality depends on local geology, distance from sea, industrial zone, agricultural area and urbanization.